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In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, and was extended during the 18th century.With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom.Today, there is more than one school of thought on how this occurred in Ireland.is that the Celtic language, Ogham script and culture were brought to Ireland by waves of invading or migrating Celts from mainland Europe.Thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages.As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, compared with a European average of 35%.The island's geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland.The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild but changeable climate which is free of extremes in temperature.
Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such cattle and sheep, large timber building, and stone monuments.
Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music, and the Irish language.
The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. The Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel; harnessing oxen; weaving textiles; brewing alcohol; and skilful metalworking, which produced new weapons and tools, along with fine gold decoration and jewellery, such as brooches and torcs. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that also included Britain, western France and Iberia, and that this is where Celtic languages developed.
This contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture.